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A case study of methods to minimize Research Bias

A case study of methods to minimize Research Bias
Muhammad Shahid Imran (Research Scholar, Mphil) University of Central Punjab dj.shaa@yahoo.com
Dr Zakria Zakar, Professor University of the Punjab mzzakir@yahoo.com

Introduction The term bias in research is by no means straightforward in meaning. Usually it refers to systematic error or deviation from actual results due to different intervening and mediating variables mostly affecting the objectivity of research. It can also be conscious or unconscious impact of researcher’s personal likeness or failure to interpret results which may lead to erroneous conclusions. Researchers see bias as big obstacle in achieving credibility and accuracy in research. As influence of personal or ideological beliefs on their methods to achieve a certain results can endanger principle of impartiality. (Research Integrity, Scientific Misconduct, 2014) While conducting an empirical social science research, a researcher may encounter bias at any of the many stages inv…
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‘Illiterate Nuclear State’

How US became a superpower dominating the former Soviet Union and eliminating the all ideologies other than capitalism, how France and neighbor countries survive the French Revolution’s aftermaths, how Industrial progress modernize the ignorant Europe, how China is taking over the world economy, how Japan survive after dreadful atomic bombing and finally how still more than half population of Pakistan is living under poverty line. Neutralizing all other intervening variables we will find one common variable seeding these all events is education. We met with desperate and astonishing figures while analyzing education condition in Pakistan, standing at 46% literacy rate with only 26% of which girls are literate as per ministry sources, however independent sources paint more horrible picture. We know without education a person can’t become doctor to provide medical aid to patients suffering from disease, one can’t become engineer to build roads, infrastructure, buildings, and educational …

What Tribune tells about Islamophobia

Media’s vie for Hegemony!

We are living in an era of multi-platform world, now media is more than an instrument of corporatocracy. One can propagate its own set of beliefs or ideas through a variety of mediums available like YouTube, face book, twitter and many other social interactive sites to create an impact on majority of audience using these mediums to receive and disseminate information. However, war of ideologies is continued unimpeded at new battle fields, to become dominant. Hegemony of media is varying if not fading in its nature in present era of multi-dominant ideas. As Kerlinger[i] and Luhman[ii] describe this fact as ‘multiple realities’ and ‘fluidity of meaning’ which then combine to make a broader picture, a dominant one, widely believed without any resistance. Now Hegemony is transferring to groups of similar minded people as there is great flux of ideas one replacing other, sometime every other day. However, mass media too regaining Hegemony by using these new technologies. The concept develop…

When natural disasters hit Schools

Natural disasters are nearly impossible to avoid even in supposedly modernized world today. Millions of people are affected by natural disasters every year, and the impact could be catastrophic. Floods, wind and storms, earthquakes, drought, volcanic eruption, and tsunamis cause 400 national disasters worldwide, an average of 74,000 deaths, affecting more than 230 million people every single year. The United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef) in a tweet, widely used social media site to disseminate information, said that about 175 school going people are affected by natural disasters each year. Most of them face disruption to schooling. So when natural disaster hits a country or region, children of that area count to the most affectees, suffering not only from psychological traumas, diseases but also school closures.

A tweet by United Nations Children's Fund (Unicef)on May 20 ahead of Moonsoon season in most flood affected regions. Natural disasters are not equally devastating for …

آزاد فلسطینی ریاست، اسرائیل اور عرب ممالک

اسرائیل کی حماس سے کوئی لڑائی نہیں اسرائیل کی لڑائی ایک آزاد فلسطینی ریاست کے قیام سے ہے، جنگ بندی کے اعلان کے باوجود معصوم جانوں کو درندگی سے قتل کرنے والی یہ امریکہ نواز تسلطی قوم اب تک 549 بچوں سمیت2048 افراد کو شہد کر چکی ہے، ہم بہت زیادہ تاریخی مباحثوں میں الجھنے کی بجائے اگر پچھلے چند سالوں کے واقعات پر نظر ڈالیں تو ہمیں اسرائیل اور فلسطینی ریاست کے قیام کی اس لڑائی میں عرب لیگ کی کم ہوتی حمایت واضح پتہ لگے گئی، فلسطین کی رایاست کا قیام  سب سے پہلے تو اسرائیل کے لیے ہی کبھی بھی قابل قبول نہیں رہا کیونکہ یہ صہیونی ریاست کے خواب کو چکنا چور کر دے گا اور فلسطینیوں کی زمین پر ناجائز قبضے کی کوششوں کو بھی سبوتاژ کرے گا لیکن اس سارے واقعات میں عرب اور مسلم ممالک کا کردار بھی اپنے مفادات کے گر دگھومتا ہے۔ کلونیل راج میں قابض ملک کی یہی کوشش ہوتی ہے کہ وہ مقامی لوگوں کو جتنا کمزور رکھ سکتا ہو وہ رکھتا ہے یہی پالیسی اسرائیل کی فلسطین بارے ہے،اسرائیل فلسطینوں کی زمین پر قبضہ کرنا، ان کی سرحدوں کو اپنے کنٹرول میں رکھنا،  غزہ کو جیل جیسی شکل دیکر فلسطینیوں کو اس میں قید کرنا اور ان پر اپنے ہ…